Granting: When a patent application meets all the requirements, the Patent and Trademark Office (PTO) grants it.
Office action: If the information is inaccurate or important documents are missing, the PTO makes a request for information that has to be responded.
Opposition: If the application complies with all formal requirements, the PTO makes it public, so that third parties who believe the new patent violates any of their rights can file an opposition. The applicant must respond proving that the opposition had no basis, and the registration process must continue.
Refusal: The Patent Office issues a resolution explaining the legal reasons why the application was denied.
Reconsideration and appeal: The Patent Office may grant or deny a new patent. In either case, the dissatisfied party can file a reconsideration or an appeal in order to change the PTO decision. There will be no certainty of patent granting if there are pending appeals.