Granting : When a patent application meets all the requirements, the Trademark Office (PTO) registers it.
Office action: If the PTO does not have the correct information or lacks documents in the application to proceed with the process, it makes a request for information that should be responded.
Opposition: If the application complies with all formal requirements, the PTO makes it public, so those who believe the new patent violates any of their rights can file an opposition. The applicant must respond showing that the opposition had no basis, and the registration process must continue.
Refusal: The Patent Office issues a resolution explaining the legal reasons why the application was denied.
Reconsideration and appeal: The Trademark Office may grant or deny registration of a new patent. In either case, the dissatisfied party can file a reconsideration or an appeal in order to change the PTO decision. There will be no certainty of patent applications iif unresolved resources are pending.